Experiment 4 aims to obtain empirical evidence on language-specificity in choice of pitch contour to signal continuation among British English, German and Dutch. Arguably, this difference may be interpreted as a weak version of a Type-3 difference. The goal is to understand both the universality and the variability of the human language faculty from genes to behaviour. Check this link for more information on this job offer and how to apply: Native speakers of Hungarian, Mandarin Chinese and Dutch judged pairs of trisyllabic stimuli which were spoken with the same phonological pitch contour but differed in the phonetic implementation of the contour. A priori, there are different ways in which the interaction between language and meaning could play out within a Type-1 difference, based on how speakers project their pitch range onto a given semantic scale. As Gussenhoven stated, they derive from three biologically determined conditions that are responsible for pitch variation.

Note that this finding does not necessarily call the idea of compositionality in question, but may merely suggest that the size of the morphemes postulated by Pierrehumbert and Hirschberg is too small. In relation to research question 2, this thesis focuses on L2 learners whose native language differs from L2 in standard pitch range but otherwise is intonationally similar to L2, and addresses the following question: Like other paralinguistic variables such as vocal gestures e. It is also known that languages can have more than one grammaticalised form for a given meaning. As mentioned in section 1.

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The compound sentences were limited to sentences containing two clauses coordinated mohivatie Continuation intonation at a clause boundary of formuljer complex sentence is not included into this study as there is more intonational variability Cruttenden Collaborations leading to more applied questions on for instance dyscalculia are also possible, due to our involvement in the Dynamics of Youth programme.

However, the increase in the perceived emphasis across the peak height conditions was clearly steeper in Dutch ratings than in British English ratings. When necessary, significant main effects of the pitch-range related factors are considered. A significant difference between listener groups in the degree to which they made use of these variables is explained by the influence of the mother tongue.


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We will test the hypothesis that a gap in distribution is the default criterion used in the processing of vague words in classificatory tasks, but that other criteria might also come into play. Nuclear tones Meaning Proclaiming tones Fall Proclaim Rise-fall Intensified proclaim Referring tones Fall-rise Refer Rise Intensified refer Neutral tone Low rise Neither proclaim nor refer In addition, Brazil proposed two separate paradigms, key and termination, to account for the linguistic exploitation of pitch range variation in the beginning and end of a tone group.

He compared tune meaning to the meaning of ideophonic words and proposed that English has an intonational lexicon, consisting of words i. Examples of the source utterances are given in English and Dutch in 1. The cross-linguistic similarities in the linguistic meanings e.

Ladd University of Edinburgh Dr. The distribution of end pitch values over source utterance pairs is as follows: You will be eligible to apply for further funding both internally and externally. The data of one Dutch subject and one English subject were not included in statistical analyses because of poor performance. Additional information about the vacancy can be obtained from: Production studies of L2 intonation have shown that L2 learners tend to use the standard pitch range of their native language in their L2.

In addition, this thesis gives special attention to the perception of paralinguistic intonational meaning in a second language L2. We assumed the following hypothesis on the preferred continuation pitch contour s in the three languages: This non- symbolic numerosity has been suggested to be a precursor for future number knowledge and mathematical abilities.

Second, the phonetic implementation of the pitch contour may also convey meaning, usually independently of its identity. In addition, in the process of speech manipulation, we noticed that identical peak heights sounded lower when curficulum by a high boundary tone than when followed by a low boundary tone.

Moreover, the implementation of form-meaning relations embodied in the biological codes is not restricted to speech production.


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The segmental structure of the stimuli was made up and presented to subjects as being taken from a little-known language spoken on a South Pacific island. What we offer We offer you: Pitch contours are composed of optional precontours and obligatory primary contours.


In addition, eight stimuli curriculuj generated from sentences other than the six source utterances read by the same speaker, which served as the practice trials see Appendix The third is that the generation of the subglottal air pressure is associated with the exhalation phase of the breathing process and is only available in phases. First, smaller larynxes produce higher-pitched sounds because they contain lighter and smaller vocal cords, with which faster vibration rates can be achieved for a given amount of muscular energy.

This decision is motivated by three reasons.

It is a Unicorn. The present findings support a theory of paralinguistic meaning based on the universality of biological formulker, which however acknowledges a language-specific component in the implementation of these codes.

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Universal and language-specific perception of paralinguistic intonational meaning een wetenschappelijke proeve op het gebied van de Letteren Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen op gezag van de Rector Magnificus Prof. The distribution of the tones over the meanings is displayed in Table 1. The pretonic is present only if there is at least one foot before the beginning of the tonic.

Moreover, for the same purpose, instead of an identification task, segmentally identical but intonationally different stimuli were presented in pairs and subjects were asked to guess for each pair which of the two was a question.

Three biological codes column 1their physical sources column 2and examples of their interpretations columns 3 and viyae.